The detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change in the presence of natural climate variability is essential for quantifying anthopogenic climate change.
Researchers affiliated with the PCC are using models and observations to examine interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans/atmosphere. Observational studies of both the near surface ocean as well as the abyssal ocean quantify how much heat and carbon is taken up by the ocean, and help to constrain climate models. New instrument development for the study of the climate system is also underway by researchers affiliated with the PCC. The interaction of sea-ice and land-ice at high latitudes with both oceanic and atmospheric circulation is also an area of focus.